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  1. The achieved weights of examination components

    Authors: 
    Robert Adams and Roger Murphy

    Every examination may be regarded as being made up of a number of components. These components may be individual questions or items, parts of questions, individual papers or even assessments other than written examination papers (for example coursework or projects)....

  2. Sex differences in objective test performance

    Authors: 
    Roger Murphy

    The choice of techniques used in making educational assessments may have a crucial influence on the relative performance of various groups of individuals....

  3. A case for open-book examinations

    Authors: 
    John Francis

    Investigations into the effectiveness of open‐book examinations have shown that they reduce students’ test anxiety and need to memorise factual material....

  4. Taking ‘O’ level GCE examinations: the strategies employed by candidates and their teachers

    Authors: 
    John Francis

    It is taken for granted that allowing a choice of questions in an examination question paper is desirable. Question choice allows teachers the freedom to prepare their candidates on those aspects of the syllabus that are most appropriate to the interests and strengths of both teacher and students....

  5. Profile reporting in external examinations

    Authors: 
    John Francis

    The psychometric approach to reporting separately the component grades or scores of an examination is challenged because it relies on misleading assumptions. An alternative approach which involves re‐thinking the purpose and structure of examinations is described....

  6. Some observations on the problems of grading examinations with several components: a reply to P. J. Squire

    Authors: 
    Roger Murphy and Robert Adams

    In a recent article in [Educational Studies], Squire (1978) describes a phenomenon well known to those concerned with examining; namely that when candidates' final marks are obtained by summing a number of examination components, with or without differential weighting, the dispersion in the final ...

  7. Stretch and challenge in A-level examinations: teachers’ views of the new assessments

    Authors: 
    Jo-Anne Baird, Anthony Daly, Kate Tremain and Michelle Meadows

    In recent years, some commentators have argued that A-levels do not stretch the most able students. To tackle such concerns, the Government introduced a policy that has become known as ‘stretch and challenge’ in the Education and Skills White Paper....

  8. Students' views of stretch and challenge in A-level examinations

    Authors: 
    Jo-Anne Baird, Suzanne Chamberlain, Michelle Meadows, Lucy Royal-Dawson and Rachel Taylor

    Claims that A-levels do not stretch the brightest students have dogged the education system in England in recent years. Part of the Government response to this has been to introduce a policy of ‘stretch and challenge’, which features different question styles in new A-level examination papers....

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