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  1. Fears for tiers: are candidates being appropriately rewarded for their performance in tiered examinations?

    Authors: 
    Christopher Wheadon and Anton Béguin

    Tiering is a multi‐stage test design whereby teachers allocate students to a particular difficulty level (tier) of a test. This approach to the challenge of delivering assessments to students with a heterogeneous ability distribution is normal practice in UK public examinations at the age of 16....

  2. It's a long, long time from November to June

    Authors: 
    Christopher Wheadon

    Since 1918, if not before, the maintenance of standards over time in the English examination system has used approaches that assume that large cohorts of candidates sit their examinations at the same time of year, every year, after following a similar programme of study over a similar time period....

  3. Maintaining standards in UK high-stakes examinations using test equating

    Authors: 
    Christopher Wheadon

    The dual processes of setting and maintaining of standards in high-stakes public examinations in the UK have long used the same methodology: a combination of judgement and statistics....

  4. An Item Response Theory approach to the maintenance of standards in public examinations in England

    Authors: 
    Christopher Wheadon

    Every year outcomes from public examinations in the UK rise: politicians congratulate pupils on their hard earned achievement; the media questions whether this achievement is real; those responsible for administrating the examinations defend their standards; various subject councils and employers ...

  5. Item banks and on-demand tests

    Authors: 
    Claire Whitehouse

    The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the fundamental principles of item banking....

  6. Using modern test theory to maintain standards in public qualifications in England

    Authors: 
    Christopher Wheadon

    This paper describes how item response theory (IRT) methods of test-equating could be applied to the maintenance of public examination standards in England....

  7. The effect of sample size on item parameter estimation for the partial credit model

    Authors: 
    Qingping He and Christopher Wheadon

    Item Response Theory (IRT) models have been widely used to analyse test data and develop IRT-based tests. An important requirement in applying IRT models is the stability and accuracy of model parameters....

  8. The effect of differential motivation on IRT linking

    Authors: 
    Marie-Anne Mittelhaëuser, Anton Béguin and Klaas Sijtsma

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether simulated differential motivation between the stakes for operational tests and anchor items produces an invalid linking result if the Rasch model is used to link the operational tests....