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  1. Levels-based mark schemes and marking bias

    Authors: 
    Anne Pinot de Moira

    Reliability and validity are ever-present themes in the evaluation of assessment. Previous research studies have considered the role of the question paper, the mark scheme and the examiners in providing unbiased estimates of students’ ability....

  2. Gains in marking reliability from item-level marking: is the sum of the parts better than the whole?

    Authors: 
    Christopher Wheadon and Anne Pinot de Moira

    Marking of high-stakes examinations in England has traditionally been administered by schools and colleges sending their examination papers directly to examiners. As a consequence, the work of one candidate has, historically, been marked by one examiner, as has work of an entire centre....