Research library

Browse and search the library of research carried out by the Centre for Education Research and Practice, covering a wide range of topics across education and assessment.

  1. Exploring second phase samples: what is the most appropriate basis for examiner adjustments?

    Lucy Billington

    In the UK, examination boards monitor the quality of their examiners’ marking by sampling their work (scripts) at two different points during the marking period....

  2. How reliable is marking in GCSE English?

    Diana Fowles

    In a re-marking exercise to investigate the reliability of marking in GCSE English examinations, the Principal Examiners’ marks were adopted as ‘true’ marks for comparison with the actual or ‘live’ marks that had been awarded by the appointed examiners....

  3. Students' views of stretch and challenge in A-level examinations

    Jo-Anne Baird, Suzanne Chamberlain, Michelle Meadows, Lucy Royal-Dawson and Rachel Taylor

    Claims that A-levels do not stretch the brightest students have dogged the education system in England in recent years. Part of the Government response to this has been to introduce a policy of ‘stretch and challenge’, which features different question styles in new A-level examination papers....

  4. Stretch and challenge in A-level examinations: teachers’ views of the new assessments

    Jo-Anne Baird, Anthony Daly, Kate Tremain and Michelle Meadows

    In recent years, some commentators have argued that A-levels do not stretch the most able students. To tackle such concerns, the Government introduced a policy that has become known as ‘stretch and challenge’ in the Education and Skills White Paper....

  5. Principles and practice of on-demand testing

    Christopher Wheadon, Claire Whitehouse, Victoria Spalding, Kate Tremain and Melody Charman

    This research was commissioned by Ofqual to review how advances in computer technology were enabling on-demand testing in the UK and to consider the implications of these advances for high stakes general qualifications....

  6. The effect of sample size on item parameter estimation for the partial credit model

    Qingping He and Christopher Wheadon

    Item Response Theory (IRT) models have been widely used to analyse test data and develop IRT-based tests. An important requirement in applying IRT models is the stability and accuracy of model parameters....

  7. Awarding objective test papers: is there a correct answer?

    Lesley Meyer

    In AQA, Objective Tests (OTs) have, in GCSEs generally, historically been awarded via a process known as 'back calculation' from other components. More recently, other methods such as Angoff (GCE) and KS3 predicted outcomes/IRT (GCSE Science) have also been employed....

  8. Contemporary validity theory and the assessment context in England

    Neil Stringer

    The concept of validity developed considerably during the last half of the twentieth century, from essentially meaning that 'a test measures what it says it measures', through multiple types of validity - content, criterion, and construct - to a multifaceted but essentially unitary concept of constr...