Research library

Browse and search the library of research carried out by the Centre for Education Research and Practice, covering a wide range of topics across education and assessment.

  1. Effective discrimination in mark schemes

    Authors: 
    Anne Pinot de Moira

    Effective assessment is often measured in terms of mark re-mark reliability: the extent to which the same mark would be awarded to a candidate by two different examiners or, alternatively, by the same examiner on two different occasions....

  2. Regulation and the qualifications market

    Authors: 
    Ben Jones

    The paper is in four main sections. “A theoretical framework from economics” introduces the conceptual framework of economics, in which the qualifications industry is seen as an operational market....

  3. An Item Response Theory approach to the maintenance of standards in public examinations in England

    Authors: 
    Christopher Wheadon

    Every year outcomes from public examinations in the UK rise: politicians congratulate pupils on their hard earned achievement; the media questions whether this achievement is real; those responsible for administrating the examinations defend their standards; various subject councils and employers ...

  4. The effect of marker background and training on the quality of marking in GCSE English

    Authors: 
    Michelle Meadows and Lucy Billington

    Historically, in the UK, marker selection criteria for national examinations have been a matter of custom and practice. Only recently has empirical evidence of the effect of background on marking reliability begun to be gathered....

  5. Numbering nested questions

    Authors: 
    Sofia Parkinson and Neil Stringer

    In line with the aim of simplifying and standardising the format of AQA‘s question papers, it has been proposed that all question papers should be numbered using a simple sequential system (i.e. 1, 2, 3… etc.)....

  6. Teachers' estimates of candidates' grades: Curriculum 2000 Advanced Level Qualifications

    Authors: 
    Debra Dhillon

    In the UK, estimated grades have long been provided to higher education establishments as part of their entry procedures. Since 1994 they have also been routinely collected by awarding bodies to facilitate the grade‐awarding process....

  7. What makes marking reliable? Experiments with UK examinations

    Authors: 
    Jo-Anne Baird, Jackie Greatorex and John Bell

    Marking reliability is purported to be produced by having an effective community of practice. No experimental research has been identified which attempts to verify empirically the aspects of a community of practice that have been observed to produce marking reliability....

  8. The impact of re-sitting on the fairness of grading

    Authors: 
    Christopher Wheadon

    One consideration in allowing re-sitting is that examinations are not perfectly reliable instruments. On any occasion a candidate may perform slightly better or worse depending on a number of chance factors related to their preparation and the test content....

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